Articles

Energy: Oil & Gas, Turkey - Trends & Developments

The World Energy Council’s 23rd World Energy Congress was held in Istanbul between...

More

H Plus Cover Page Interview "Av. Ümit Hergüner"

Mr. Hergüner recently sat down for an interview with H Plus to discuss his...

More

Energy: Oil & Gas, Turkey - Law & Practice

Under the Turkish Petroleum Law No 6491, the term “petroleum” includes both crude oil and natural gas..

More

Legal Environment Report of the "Belt and Road" Countries

Turkey has been a member of World Trade Organisation (WTO) since March 26, 1995 and has been a party to the...

More

International Arbitration: Trends & Developments

The last decade has witnessed a significant growth in cross-border transactions and an increase in the number of investment treaties, leading to a notable growth...

More

Litigation: Law & Practice

The Turkish legal system is a civil law system that has incorporated elements of Swiss and German law, and is an inquisitorial model. The legal process is conducted through...

More

Litigation: Trends & Developments

Turkish courts are regularly burdened by heavy caseloads, which inevitably lead to delayed outcomes in the cases pending before them. There have been attempts...

More

Corporate M&A: Law & Practice

2015 was a year of caution for Turkey, as the country went through parliamentary elections and the humanitarian..

More

Corporate M&A: Trends & Developments

2015 was a year of caution for Turkey. The humanitarian crisis in Syria continued, inevitably...

More

Iran: Legal and Business Environment

An interview with Mr. Ümit Hergüner regarding his observations about Iran's business prospects.

More

The Dispute Resolution Review - Ninth Edition

Turkey is a unitary republic with a single nationwide legal system. It is a civil law country, as this term is generally understood in...

More

The Transport Finance Law Review

The Turkish shipping industry consists of both manufacturers (shipyards) and ship-owners and operators. The total tonnage of the Turkish commercial fleet reached its peak level of 30 million...

More

The Mining Law Review 5th Edition - Turkey Capital Markets

Mining investment has increased in recent years, and now plays a significant role in the Turkish economy. More than 70 types of mineral are found in Turkey, nearly all of which...

More

The Mining Law Review 5th Edition - Turkey Mining

With its natural resources and active business environment, the Turkish mining sector is increasingly attractive to investors. The Turkish government has acknowledged the increasing foreign and local interest in the sector by enacting...

More

The Private Equity Review - Turkey Fundraising

In line with the government’s goal of establishing a powerful financial and securities market, Turkey has become increasingly successful in its efforts to secure a future place among the top players in the financial world and the most powerful economies.

More

The Private Equity Review - Turkey Investing

Before the Capital Markets Law No. 6362 (CML)2 entered into force and the related secondary regulations were issued, private equity (PE) in Turkey was structured either by way of a venture capital investment company (VCIC) or a PE fund established in a foreign jurisdiction (offshore PE fund), which would either directly acquire shares in Turkish portfolio companies, or acquire them indirectly through a special purpose vehicle (SPV).

More

The Strategic View - Corporate Restructuring 2016

The Plan states that a fundamental objective of transforming the manufacturing industry is to increase the share of high-technology sectors in production and exports.

More

Establishing a business in Turkey

The Republic of Turkey has a civil law legal system. Under the Turkish Constitution, the Grand National Assembly is the supreme legislative authority and can create or abolish any law.

More

Lexology Navigator - Arbitration

The main piece of legislation governing domestic arbitration in Turkey is the Civil Procedural Code (6100), which entered into force in 2011.

More

Pharmaceutical IP and competition law in Turkey: overview

Decree Law No. 551 on the Protection of Patent Rights (Patent Decree Law) is the primary legislation regulating patents.

More

Medicinal product regulation and product liability in Turkey: overview

The primary legislation is the Code on Pharmaceuticals and Pharmaceutical Preparations (İspençiyari ve Tibbi Müstahzarlar Kanunu) No. 1262 (Pharmaceutical Code) which was published in the Official Gazette dated 26 May 1928. Various other legislation applies in specific areas.

More

The effects of minimum wage increases on collective bargaining agreements

In Turkey, the minimum wage is determined by a government-established commission for six-month periods, which constitutes a significant measure for the evaluation of industrial costs. Nearly one-third of the country's labour force is paid the minimum wage.

More

New Role of Private Employment Agencies for Temporary Work

Private employment agencies only officially entered the market in late 2003. Before this date, they did exist but as consultancy organisations with limited activities.

More

Modifications planned to labour law proceedings

Turkey has approximately 10 million registered employees and a robust, labourfriendly body of law. Against this backdrop, employment relationships frequently end with a lawsuit against the former employer.

More

Mediation for employment related disputes

The Law on Mediation for Civil Disputes (6325) and the Law on Mediation for Civil Disputes (28540) came into force on June 22 2013. This legislation established a more comprehensive framework for mediation in employment disputes than the mediation processes used in collective labour agreements under the Collective Labour Agreement, Strike and LockOut Law.

More

What is a solidarity fee and why do unions not like it?

The main aim of a collective bargaining agreement is to develop the employment rights and benefits of employees in the workplace contractually.

More

Employer associations: how effective are they?

The right to unionise is not specific to employees. Employers also have the right to establish or to join an employer association which will represent them in various situations, such as in collective bargaining negotiations, on national and international labour platforms and before nongovernmental organisations.

More

Corporate Governance International Series - Turkey Chapter

A historical weakness of corporate governance in Turkey (a civil law jurisdiction) is that dominant shareholders tend to control a significant portion of Turkish companies.

More

The International Comparative Legal Guide to: Oil & Gas Regulation 2015

Turkey has long held a strategic role in the natural gas map of the world. Relying on its key geographical status, market players, be it State or private entities, have been recognising Turkey as a regional energy hub.

More

Lending and taking security in Turkey: overview

The main trends and important developments in the lending market in Turkey in the last 12 months are as follows: Measures and macro-prudential policies have been adopted by the government and the Turkish Central Bank to minimise the impact of the volatility and ambiguity of international markets regarding the Turkish economy.

More

Employment and employee benefits in Turkey: overview

Employment laws in Turkey apply to Turkish nationals and foreign nationals alike. In addition, special provisions exist which regulate the employment and residence permits of foreign nationals who intend to work in Turkey.

More

The Corporate Governance Review

Turkish corporate governance rules have been evolving quickly over the past few years. Until very recently, the Corporate Governance Principles (the CMB Principles) of the Capital Markets Board of Turkey (CMB), which is the regulatory body for listed companies...

More